Publications

Book Chapters and Peer Reviewed Articles

Below is a selection of publications from the Close Relationships and Attachment Theory Lab. Click on any hyperlinked citation to access a PDF or the direct link to the publisher. Check back often, as we will continue to add publications and links.

In Press

Paetzold, R.L., & W.S. Rholes. (in press). The link from child abuse to dissociation: The roles of adult disorganized attachment, self-concept clarity, and reflective functioning. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation.

Paetzold, R. L., Rholes, W. S. & George, T. (2021). Stability and change in adult romantic relationship attachment styles. In R.A. Thompson, J.A. Simpson, & L. Berlin (Eds.)  Attachment: The Fundamental Questions. New York: Guilford.

2020

Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., Eller, J., & Paetzold, R. L. (2020). Major principles of attachment theory: Overview, hypotheses, and research ideas. In Kruglanski, A. W. & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.) Social Psychology, Handbook of Basic Principles, 3rd edition (pp. 222 – 239). New York: Guilford.

Rholes, W. S., Eller, J., Simpson, J. A., Arriaga, X. B. (2020). Support processes predict declines in attachment avoidance across the transition to parenthood. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1 – 16.

George, T., Hart, J. A., Rholes, W. S. (2020). Remaining in unhappy relationships: The roles of attachment anxiety and fear of change. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 37, 1626 – 1633.

Arriaga, X. B., Eller, J., Kumashiro, M.,  Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., (2020). Self-efficacy and declines in attachment anxiety during the transition to parenthood. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 1 – 9.

Joel, S., Eastwick, P. W., Allison, C. J., Arriaga, X. B., Baker, Z. G., Bar-Kalifa, E., Bergeron, S., Birnbaum, G., Brock, R. L., Brumbaugh, C. C., Carmichael, C. L., Chen, S., J., Coolsen, M. K., Davis, J., de Jong, D. C., Debrot, A., DeHaas, E. C., Derrick, J. L., Eller, J., Estrada, M. J., Faure, R., Finkel, E. J., Fraley, R. C., Gable, S. L., Gadassi, R., Girme, Y. U., Gordon, A. M., Gosnell, C. L., Hammond, M. D., Hannon, P. A., Harasymchuk, C., Hofmann, W., Horn, A. B., Impett, E. A., Jamieson, J. P., Keltner, D., Kim, J. J., Kirchner, L., Klewer, E. S., Kumashiro, M., Larson, G., Lazarus, G., Logan, J. M., Luchies, L. B., MacDonald, G., Machia, L. V., Maniaci, M. R., Maxwell, J. A., Mizrahi, M., Muise, A., Niehuis, S., Ogolsky, B. G., Oldham, C. R., Overall, N. C., Perrez, M., Peters, B. J., Pietromonaco, P. R., Powers, S. I., Prok, T., Pshedetzky-Shochat, R., Rafaeli, E., Ramsdell, E., Reblin, M., Reicherts, M., Reifman, A., Reis, H. T., Rhoades, G. K., Rholes, W. S., Righetti, F., Rodriguez, L. M., Rogge, R., Rosen, N. O., Saxbe, D., Sened, H., Simpson, J. A., Slotter, E. B., Stanley, S. M., Stocker, S., Surra, C., Vaughn, A. A., Vicary, A. M., Visserman, M. L., & Wolf, S. (2020). Machine learning uncovers the most robust self-report predictors of relationship quality across 43 longitudinal couples studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117, 19061-19071.

2019

Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S. (2019). Adult attachment orientations and well-being during the transition to parenthood. Current Opinion in Psychology, 25, 47 – 52.

Rholes, W. S., & Paetzold, R. L. (2019). Attachment and the transition to parenthood. In Orit Taubman-Ben-Ari (Ed.) Pathways and barriers to parenthood: Existential concerns regarding fertility, pregnancy, and early parenthood. Springer Nature: Switzerland AG.

Theisen, J. C., Ogolsky, Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S. (2019). Dyad to triad: A longitudinal analysis of humor and pregnancy intention during the transition to parenthood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 1 – 20.

Eller, J., Marshall, E. M., Rholes, W. S., Vieth, G., Simpson, J. A. (2019). Partner predictors of marital aggression across the transition to parenthood: An I3 approach. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 35, 1491 – 1508.

2018

Grimme, Y. U., Agnew, C. R.,VanderDrift, L. E.,Harvey, S. M., Rholes, W. S., & Simpson, J. A. (2018). The ebbs and flows of attachment: Within-person variation in attachment undermine secure individuals’ relationship wellbeing across time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114, 397 – 421.

2017

Paetzold, R. L. & Rholes, W. S. (2017). Wal-Mart v Dukes: Justice Scalia and systematic disparate treatment theory. Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal, 21, 115 – 162.

Paetzold, R. L., Rholes, W. S. & Andrus, J. L. (2017). A Bayesian analysis of the link between disorganized attachment and dissociative symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences.

Simpson, J. A. & Rholes, W. S. (2017). Adult attachment, stress, and romantic relationships. Current Opinion in Psychology, 13, 19 – 24.

2016

Rholes, W. S., Paetzold, R. L., Kohn, J. L. (2016). Disorganized attachment mediates the link from early trauma to externalizing behavior in adult relationships. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 61 – 65.

2015

Paetzold, R. L., & Rholes, W. S. (2015). Attachment theory and methods for meanings of couple intimacy. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 15, 414- 417.

Paetzold, R. L., Rholes, W. S., & Kohn, J. L. (2015). Disorganized attachment in adulthood: Theory, measurement, and implications for romantic relationshipsReview of General Psychology, 19, 146 – 156.

Marshall, E. M., Simpson, J. A., & Rholes, W. S. (2015). Personality, communication, and depressive symptoms across the transition to parenthood: A dyadic longitudinal investigation. European Journal of Personality, 29, 216 – 234.

Fillo, J., Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., & Kohn, J. L. (2015). Dads doing diapers: Individual and relational outcomes associated with the division of childcare across the transition to parenthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108, 298 – 316.

Rholes W. S. & Simpson, J. A. (2015). Introduction: New directions and emerging themes in attachment theory and research. In Simpson, J. A. & Rholes, W. S. (Eds.) Attachment theory and research: New directions and emerging themes. New York, Guilford.

2014

Rholes, W. S., Kohn, J. L., & Simpson, J. A. (2014). A longitudinal study of conflict in new parents: The role of attachment. Personal Relationships, 21, 1 – 21.

2012

Kohn, J. L., Rholes, W. S., & Simpson, J. A., Martin, A. M., Tran, S., & Wilson, C. L. (2012). Changes in marital satisfaction across the transition to parenthood: The role of adult attachment orientations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1506 – 1522.

Simpson, J. A., & Rholes, W. S. (2012). Adult attachment orientations, stress, and romantic relationships. T. Devine & A. Plante (Eds.) Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 45, (pp. 279 – 328). San Diego: Academic Press.

Kohn, J. L., Rholes, W. S., & Schmeichel, B. J. (2012). Self-regulatory depletion and attachment avoidance: Increasing the accessibility of negative attachment-related memories. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 375 – 378.

2011

Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., Kohn, J. L., Wilson, C. L., Martin, A. M., Tran, S., & Kashy, D. A. (2011). Attachment orientations and depression: A longitudinal study of new parents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 567 – 586.

Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., & Shallcross, S. (2011). Attachment and depression across the transition to parenthood: Social policy implications. In G. Karantzas & P. Noller (Eds.), Couples and family relationships: A guide to contemporary research, theory, practice, and policy. New York: Blackwell.

Simpson, J. A., Kim, J. S., Fillo, J., Ickes, W., Rholes, W. S., Orina, M. M., & Winterheld, H. A. (2011). Attachment and the management of empathic accuracy in relationship-threatening situations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 242 – 254.

2010

Martin, A. M., Paetzold, R. L., & Rholes, W. S. (2010). Adult attachment and exploration: Linking attachment style to motivation and perceptions of support in adult exploration. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 32, 196 – 205.

Simpson, J. A., & Rholes, W. S. (2010). Attachment relationships: Milestones and future directions. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27, 173 – 180.

Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., & Winterheld, H.A. (2010). Attachment working models twist memories of relationship events. Psychological Science, 21, 252-259.

Mak, M. C. K., Bond, M. H., Simpson, J. A., & Rholes, W. S. (2010). Adult attachment, perceived support, and depressive symptoms in Chinese and American cultures. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29, 144 – 164.

Friedman, M., Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., Bond, M. H., Diaz-Loving, R., Chan, C. (2010). Attachment avoidance and the cultural fit hypothesis: A cross-cultural investigation. Personal Relationships, 17, 107 – 126.

2009

Friedman, M., & Rholes, W. S. (2009). Religious fundamentalism and terror management: Differences by interdependent and independent self-construal. Self and Identity, 8, 24 – 44.

2008

Simpson, J. A., & Rholes, W. S. (2008). Attachment, perceived support, and the transition to parenthood: Social policy and health implications. Social Issues and Policy Review, 2, 37-63.

Friedman, M., & Rholes, W. S. (2008). Religious Fundamentalism and Terror Management. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 18, 36-52.

Rholes, W. S., Paetzold, R. L., Friedman, M. (2008). Ties that bind: Linking personality to interpersonal behavior through the study of adult attachment style and relationship satisfaction. In F. Rhodewalt (Ed.) Personality and Social Interaction. Washington D. C.: Psychology Press.

2007

Simpson, J. A., Winterheld, H. A., Rholes, W. S. & Oriña, M. M. (2007). Working models of attachment and reactions to different forms of caregiving from romantic partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 466 – 477.

Friedman, M., & Rholes, W. S. (2007). Successfully challenging fundamentalist beliefs results in increased death awareness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 43, 794 – 801.

Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., Tran, S., Martin, A. M. III, Friedman, M. (2007). Attachment and information seeking in romantic relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 422 – 43.

Wilson, C. L., Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., & Tran, S. (2007). Labor, delivery, and early parenthood: An attachment theory perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 33, 422 – 438.

2006

Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., & Friedman, M. (2006). Avoidant attachment and the experience of parenting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 275 – 285.

2004

Rholes, W. S., & Simpson, J. A. (2004). Attachment theory: Basic concepts and contemporary questions. In W S. Rholes & J. A. Simpson (Eds.) Adult attachment: Theory, research, and clinical implications. Guilford: New York.

Rholes, W. S., & Simpson, J. A. (2004). Ambivalent attachment and depressive symptoms: The role of romantic and parent-child relationships. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 18, 67- 78.

Simpson, J. A., & Rholes, W. S. (2004). Anxious attachment and depressive symptoms: An interpersonal approach. In W. S. Rholes & J. A. Simpson (Eds.) Adult attachment: Theory, research, and clinical implications. Guilford: New York.

2003

Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., Campbell, L., Tran, S., & Wilson, C. L. (2003). Adult attachment, the transition to parenthood, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1172 – 1187.

Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., Campbell, L., & Wilson, C. L. (2003). Change in attachment orientation during the transition to parenthood. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 317 – 331.

Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., Oriña, M., & Grich, J. (2003). Working models attachment, support giving, and support seeking in a stressful situation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 598 – 608.

2002

Simpson, J. A., & Rholes, W. S. (2002). Attachment orientations, marriage, and the transition to parenthood. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 622 – 628.

Simpson, J. A. & Rholes, W. S. (2002). Fearful-avoidance, disorganization, and multiple working models: Some directions for future theory and research. Attachment and Human Development, 4, 223 – 229.

Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., Campbell, L., Wilson, C., & Tran, S. (2002). Adult attachment, the transition to parenthood, and marital well-being. In P. Noller & J. Feeney (Eds.) The Intricacies of Marital Interaction. pp. 385 – 410. New York: Cambridge University Press.

2001

Campbell, L. J., Simpson, J. A., Kashy, D. A., & Rholes, W. S. (2001). Attachment orientation and behavior in a stressful situation: An actor-partner interdependence analysis. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 18, 849-871.

Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., Campbell, L., & Grich, J. (2001). Adult attachment and the transition to parenthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 421-435.

2000

Simpson, J. A. & Rholes, W. S. (2000). Care giving, attachment theory, and the connection theoretical orientation. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 114-117.

1999

Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., & Oriña, M. (1999). Attachment and anger in an anxiety-provoking situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 940-957.

1998

Rholes, W.S., Simpson, J.A., & Stevens, J.G. (1998). Attachment orientation, social support, and conflict resolution in close relationships. In J.A. Simpson & W.S. Rholes (Eds.) Attachment theory and close relationships, pp. 166-188. New York: Guilford.

Simpson, J.A. & Rholes, W. S. (1998). Attachment theory: A glance at the past, a look to the future. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.) Attachment Theory and Close Relationships, pp. 3-21. New York: Guilford Press.

1997

Rholes, W.S., Simpson, J.A., Blakely, B.S., & Allen, E.A. (1997). Adult attachment styles, the desire to have children, and working models of parenthood. Journal of Personality, 65, 357-385.

1996

Simpson, J.A., Rholes, W.S., & Alonso, D. (1996). The impact of conflict on close relationships: An attachment perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 899-914.

1995

Rholes, W.S., Simpson, J.A., & Blakely, B. (1995). Adult attachment styles and mothers’ relationships with their young children. Personal Relationships, 2, 35-54.

1994

Simpson, J.A., & Rholes, W.S. (1994). Stress and secure base relationships in adulthood. In Perlman and Bartholomew (Eds.) Attachment in close relationships, London, Kingsley.

1993

Ambrose, B.A., & Rholes, W.S. (1993). Automatic cognitions and the symptoms of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents: An examination of the content specificity hypothesis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 17, 153-171.

1992

Simpson, J.A., Rholes, W.S., & Nelligan, J. (1992). Support-seeking and support-giving within couples in an anxiety-provoking situation: The role of attachment styles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 434-446.

1990

Rholes, W.S., Ruble, D.N., & Newman, L.S. (1990). Children’s understanding of self and other: Developmental and motivational aspects of perceiving persons in terms of invariant dispositions. In R.M. Sorrentino & E.T. Higgins (Eds.) The handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior, Vol.II, pp. 369-407. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.

1989

Palmer, D.J., & Rholes, W.S. (1989). Conceptual and methodological issues in the assessment of children’s attributions. In R. Hall and J. Hughes (Eds.) Cognitive behavioral approaches in educational settings. New York: Guilford Publishing Co.

Rholes, W.S., Michas, L., & Shroff, J. (1989). Action control as a vulnerability factor in dysphoria. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 13, 263-274.

1988

Ruble, D., Newman, L.S., Rholes, W.S., & Altschuler, J. (1988). Children’s “naive psychology”: Use of behavioral and situational information for the prediction of behavior. Cognitive Development, 3, 89-112.

Rholes, W.S., Jones, M., & Wade, C. (1988). Children’s understanding of personal dispositions and its relationship to behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 45, 1-17.

1987

Rholes, W.S., & Palmer, D.J. (1987). Learned helplessness. In C. Reynolds and H. H. Mann (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Special Education. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.

Rholes, W.S., Riskind, J.H., & Lane, J.W. (1987). Emotional states and memory biases: The effects of cognitive priming and mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 91-99.

Riskind, J.H., Rholes, W.S., Brannon, A., & Burdick, C. (1987). Attribution and expectations: A confluence of vulnerabilities in mild depression in a college student population. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 349-354.

1986

Rholes, W.S., & Ruble, D.N. (1986). Children’s impressions of other persons: The effects of temporal separation of behavioral information. Child Development, 57, 872-878.

1985

Rholes, W.S., & Lane, J.W. (1985). Consistency between cognitions and behavior: Cause and consequence of cognitive moral development. In J.P. Pryor & J.E. Day (Eds.) The Developmental Social Cognition, pp. 97-114. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Rholes, W.S., Riskind, J.H., & Neville, B. (1985). The relationship of cognitions and hopelessness to depression and anxiety. Social Cognition, 3, 36-50.

Riskind, J.H., & Rholes, W.S. (1985). The Velten mood induction procedure and cognitive manipulations: Our response to Clark. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 23, 671-673.

Riskind, J.H., & Rholes, W.S. (1985). The cognitive model of depression and mood induction procedures: A reply to Clark. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 23, 663-666.

1984

Riskind, J.H., & Rholes, W.S. (1984). Cognitive accessibility and the capacity of cognitions to predict future depression: A theoretical note. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 8, 1-12.

Rholes, W.S., & Ruble, D.N. (1984). Children’s understanding of dispositional characteristics of others. Child Development, 55, 550-560.

                       . Reprinted in the 3rd edition of Contemporary Readings in Child Psychology, R.D. Parke and E.M. Hetherington, (Eds.), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988.

1983

Rholes, W.S., & Bailey, S. (1983). The effects of level of moral reasoning on consistency between moral attitudes and related behaviors. Social Cognition, 2, 32-48.

Riskind, J.H., & Rholes, W.S. (1983). Somatic vs. self-devaluative statements in the Velten mood induction procedure: Effects on negativistic interpretations on depressed mood. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1, 300-311.

1982

Rholes, W.S. & Pryor, J.B. (1982). Cognitive accessibility and causal attributions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 719-727.

Riskind, J.H., Rholes, W.S., Eggers, J. (1982). The Velten mood induction procedure: Effects on mood and memory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 146-147.

Rholes, W.S., Bailey, S., and McMillan, L. (1982). Experiences that motivate moral development: The role of cognitive dissonance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 524-536.

Rholes, W.S. & Walters, J. (1982). Schematic patterns of causal evidence. Child Development, 53, 1046-1057.

1981

Ruble, D.N. & Rholes, W.S. (1981). The development of children’s perceptions and attributions about their social world. In J. Harvey, W. Ickes, R. Kidd (Eds.) New Directions in Attribution Theory, Vol. III. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.

1980

Rholes, W.S., Blackwell, J., Jordan, C., & Walters, J. (1980). A developmental study of learned helplessness. Developmental Psychology, 16, 616-624.

1978

Higgins, E.T., & Rholes, W.S. (1978). “Saying is believing”: Effects of message modification on memory and liking for the person described. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 363-378.

1977

Higgins, E.T., Rholes, W.S., & Jones, C. (1977). Category accessibility and impression formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 141-154.

1976

Feldman, N.S., Klosson, E.C., Parsons, J.E., Rholes, W.S., & Ruble, D.N. (1976). Order of information presentation and children’s moral judgments. Child Development, 47, 556-559.

Parsons, J.E., Ruble, D.N., Klosson, E.C., Feldman, N.S., & Rholes, W.S. (1976). Order effects in children’s moral and achievement judgments. Developmental Psychology, 12, 357-358.

Higgins, E.T. & Rholes, W.S. (1976). Impression formation and role fulfillment: A “holistic reference” approach. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 422-435.